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Glossary of Information Technology Acronyms
A2A - Application-to-Application: The transfer of data generated by one computer program directly to another computer program.
API - Application Program Interface: A language and message format that an application program uses to talk to communications software. API's are also, a set of standard software interrupts, calls, and data formats that application programs use to request services performed by an operating system.
B2B - Business-to-Business: Transactions that are conducted between two or more businesses which for the most part are over the Internet.
B2C - Business-to-Consumer: The exchange of services, information, and products from a business to a consumer.
BI - Business Intelligence: A broad category of application programs and technologies that allow companies to gather, consolidate, store, and analyze data for the purpose of making business decisions.
BIT - binary digit: A single digit number in the base-two (binary) system-in other words, either a one or a zero. A bit is the smallest unit of information in the binary system.
BPA - Business Process Automation: The process of integrating enterprise applications to improve operational efficiencies, reduce risks, and minimize manual processes.
BPM - Business Process Management: A set of activities which defines, enables, and manages the exchange of enterprise information from the perspective of organizational processes.
BYTE - binary digit eight: A unit of storage or data capacity which consists of eight bits.
CMS - Content Management System: A system that manages internal corporate documentation and information, web site content and collaborative content. A central repository of data where users can access, create, modify, or remove content.
CPM - Critical Path Method: A project management technique that analyzes a project's critical activities (i.e., activities with the least amount of scheduling flexibility) and predicts the project duration based on those activities.
CPU - Central Processing Unit: The main processor that performs all the instruction, logic, and mathematical processing in a computer.
CRM - Customer Relationship Management: A set of techniques aimed at improving interaction with customers and increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty. CRM includes the development and use of technology, integration, and processes that collect and distribute data throughout an enterprise, enabling better management of its customers.
DOS - Disk Operating System: A program or system designed to store files on a disk. DOS allows languages, applications, and utility programs to be quickly transferred between the CPU memory and disk storage.
EAS - Enterprise Application Software: Software that provides business logic support functionality aimed at improving the productivity and efficiency of an enterprise.
EII - Enterprise Information Integration: An integration technology that pulls and combines data from multiple sources in real time and presents that data as if it were in one database. ERM allows users to have a comprehensive view of customer, product, and employee information.
ERM - Enterprise Relationship Management: Software that analyzes customer, partner, and supplier data in order to examine efficiencies and inefficiencies within the various relations.
ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning: An information system designed to integrate and automate an enterprise's business processes. ERM manages inventory, resources, and business processes across departments within the enterprise.
FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions: The most commonly asked questions regarding a specific topic.
FTP - File Transfer Protocol: A protocol defining how files are moved from one computer to another over a network.
HRMS - Human Resources Management System: A management information system that supports the management of personnel, benefits, payroll, and training; software that automates many of the processes performed by human resource personnel.
HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol: The communication protocol defining how web pages are transmitted over the Internet.
ISP - Internet Service Provider: A company that provides Internet access to users for a fee.
JIT - Just-In-Time: A manufacturing concept designed to eliminate waste, reduce costs, and improve productivity; a "pull" system driven by actual product demand.
LAN - Local Area Network: A computer network covering a local area, such as an office building or a home, allowing individuals to share information.
MIS - Management Information Systems: The general term used to describe the computer systems within an organization that provide information about its business operations; also refers to the department typically responsible for administering the computer hardware, software, and networking within a company.
MRP - Material Requirements Planning: A planning methodology used to manage the various phases of the manufacturing process.
MRP II - Manufacturing Resource Planning: A method for effectively planning a manufacturing company's resources. NRP II integrates finance, accounting, billing functions, production scheduling, and inventory control functions into a unified system.
NIC - Network Interface Card: A computer circuit board or card that is inserted into a computer which enables it to be connected to a network
OSS - Operations Support System: A computer system that supports the daily operation of a business infrastructure, including order processing, inventory detail, maintenance, repair, and billing.
PLM - Product Lifecycle Management: The process of managing the lifecycle of a product through the various stages of its life-from its concept and design, through production, to the point where it is no longer functional.
POS - Point Of Sale: A system designed to help retailers automate transactions. POS may include inventory management, register management, price management, transaction management, and other capabilities.
PPM - Project Portfolio Management: A business tool that effectively enables business users to organize a number of projects into a single portfolio. PPM can provide business executives with a variety of reports which allows them to see a particular project's progress.
RAID - Redundant Array of Independent Disks: Data storage devices with two or more drives that combine into a single logical unit for improved fault tolerance, reliability, and performance.
RAM - Random Access Memory: A type of computer memory or storage which provides temporary read and write storage (versus hard disks, which offer only semi-permanent storage).
RFI - Request For Information: A document submitted by a potential user of a product-an individual or business-to a vendor or provider, to obtain information about a specific product and its capabilities.
RFID - Radio Frequency Identification: A system that uses radio frequency to identify and track unique items. RFID tags make items visible from the manufacturing stage through the distribution of the product and can be used to carry basic or complex information.
RFP - Request For Proposal: A document used to solicit proposals from prospective vendors regarding a specific product or service.
ROI - Return On Investment: A quantitative analysis of investment in a business and the financial return it generates. ROI is also, net profits divided by net worth or total equity.
SAAS - Software As A Service: A software application that is hosted and operated by a third party over the Internet, whereby the customer pays for the service of using the software, rather than paying for the software itself.
SAN - Storage Area Network: A network designed to connect multiple servers to a centralized disk storage area.
SCM - Supply Chain Management: A system that manages the entire manufacturing value chain from supplier to manufacturer, through to the retailer and final customer.
SEO - Search Engine Optimization: An acronym for "search engine optimization" and/or "search engine optimizer."
SOA - Service-Oriented Architecture: A software architectural concept that allows a business to expand its operations by having the ability to seamlessly modify software or add new features and services to an already existing software system.
SOE - Standard Operating Environment: A protocol for using standard hardware and software applications for computers within an organization.
SMB - Small to Medium Business: A business that employs less than 500 employees (or, by some conventions, less than 250 employees).
SQL - Structured Query Language: A relational data language that is keyword-oriented. SQL is used for querying, updating, and managing data.
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: The protocol networks use to communicate over the Internet.
UAT - User Acceptance Testing: In software development. testing of an application or website by the customer (the user or client) prior to accepting transfer of ownership.
VAN - Value-Added Network: A third party network provider hired by a company to facilitate electronic data interchange (EDI) or other network services.
VPN - Virtual Private Network: A private network which allows users to share private information within a public infrastructure.
WAN - Wide Area Network: A communications network that connects a group of computers together over a large geographic area.
WBS - Work Breakdown Structure: A technique that breaks down the components of a project into a hierarchy of tasks and subtasks.
WMS - Warehouse Management System: An information system that manages and controls the movement and storage of materials throughout a warehouse; a system that provides a database and user-level tools for optimizing storage facilities, while providing user-level task direction and activity support.